A) ELECTRONIC COMMERCE MODELS
As a result of people introducing e-commerce, different e-commerce models have appeared and entered our lives. These e-commerce models are generally;
- B2B – Business to businesses
- B2C – Business to consumers
- C2C – Consumer to consumer
- B2G – Business to government
1. B2B – Business to Business E-commerce Model
B2B (business to business) means trade between business and business. B2B is the name given to the organization of transactions such as ordering goods from suppliers, making payments and issuing invoices electronically all over the world. The business-to-business e-commerce model, known as B2B all over the world, is a form of trade that allows multiple buyers and sellers to get together in electronic environment and carry out buying and selling transactions. The purpose of the e-commerce model between businesses is to increase the sales and sharing of businesses by building a bridge between organizations such as manufacturers, suppliers, stores, etc. and products, services and information. Since the e-commerce model between businesses is realized between merchants, it is out of the scope of protection of Consumer Law. Disputes arising out of the relationship between businesses can be resolved within the framework of the provisions of the Turkish Commercial Code (TCC) and, to the extent applicable, the general provisions of the Turkish Code of Obligations (TCO), lesion, defect of consent, general terms and conditions, the principle of goodwill, good faith and other provisions of the Civil Code.
2. B2C – Business to Consumer E-commerce Model
Electronic marketplaces have appeared as a result of rapid developments in technology, providing companies with the opportunity to reach consumers faster and unlimitedly. In addition to traditional sales methods, companies are turning to electronic sales methods. The biggest reason for this is to reach the consumer at a lower cost and faster. Through electronic marketplaces, consumers can easily reach products from every category. The e-commerce model called B2C(business to consumer) provides consumers to save time and shop in an unlimited environment. In the goods and services markets, any contract established between real and legal persons, including public legal entities, and the consumer is called a consumer transaction. Since the B2C e-commerce model takes place between the business and the consumer, the Consumer Protection Law will be applied in disputes that will arise.
3. C2C – Consumer to Consumer E-commerce Model
The C2C (consumer to consumer) e-commerce model is the name given to transactions between consumers and consumers on electronic marketplaces. Users on shopping platforms initiate the sale by determining the offer period, offer price and mark-up amount of the products they offer for sale for other users to purchase. Users who want to buy the product on sale participate in the sale by increasing their bids either according to the minimum increase amount or at the price they want. On these sales platforms, users can comment on sellers and rate sales. For this e-commerce model, platforms selling second-hand clothes and products can be given as an example. People can sell their old products in their homes, as well as clothing or jewelry that they buy from wholesalers at an affordable price, through these platforms. The platforms where sales are made receive commissions from these sales. In addition to this type of sale, it is also possible to sell via auction.
4. B2G – Business to Government E-commerce Model
B2G (business to government) means commercial transactions between businesses and public institutions. For this commerce model, the publication of public tenders on the internet, electronic bidding of companies for tenders, follow-up of tax payments, e-notice can be given as examples. The parties in this e-commerce model are seller enterprises, buyer public institutions and organizations providing electronic intermediation services.
5. G2C – Government and Consumer E-commerce Model
In the G2C (government to consumer) e-commerce model, the government may establish some systems to provide convenience to citizens. These systems can be given as services such as payment of SGK and taxes via the internet, obtaining documents via e-Devlet, making SGK inquiries, e-declaration and e-notice.
B) PAYMENT SYSTEMS IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE
With the development of technology, e-commerce has emerged and as a result, traditional payment has been completely replaced bu digital payments, i.e. e-money systems. In addition to payment with credit and debit cards, alternative payment methods such as e-wallets an e-money/cash have started to be used. Various payment systems have been developed for the secure realization of the exchange between the parties. These payment systems can be listed as payment by e-money, wire payment(EFT), payment by cash or card on delivery, online payment by credit card, payment by credit card with 3D secure, payment by virtual card, payment through intermediary institutions (Paypal etc.), payment by cryptocurrency and payment by mobile phone.
Regulations have been made in various laws to protect the data of businesses and consumers. Law No. 6698 on the Protection of Personal Data, Law No. 5464 on Bank Cards and Credit Cards and the regulations issued based on this law have imposed various obligations on banks for secure transactions.
1. Electronic Money/Cash (e-money/cash)
E-money is a digital currency developed for use on the internet. E-money, also known as cryptocurrency, is a form of money created using various algorithms. In Turkey, various regulations have been made for e-money and the Law No. 6493 on Payment and Securities Settlement Systems, Payment Services and Electronic Money Institutions has placed electronic money and electronic payment systems in a legal framework. Companies providing electronic money and payment services can operate by obtaining a license from the Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency.
2. Bitcoin and Similar Cryptocurrencies
With the development of information technology, money in the field of e-commerce is also virtualized and transformed into various forms. Cryptocurrencies are a digital-based virtual asset. Bitcoin is one of the first examples of the virtualization of money and is not affiliated with any official institution. The Bitcoin system allows users to make direct transfers to each other without intermediaries. People in this system can keep their bitcoins in virtual wallets that they create electronically and can make transactions with these wallets. Different from the real money used today, the identity of the person making the money transaction in Bitcoin remains hidden. This means that Bitcoin-based purchases of goods and services, investments or money transfers may remain anonymous. The value of Bitcoin is determined by the supply and demand conditions in the market. When demand increases, the price increases, and when it decreases, the price decreases.
3. Credit Cards and Virtual Cards
A credit card is a physical card or a card that does not have a physical presence but has a card number on it, which enables transactions to be made without the need to use cash in the purchase of goods and services. The Bank Cards and Credit Cards Law No. 5464 constitutes the legal framework of credit cards in Turkey. Credit card payment is the most frequently used payment method in e-commerce. With the development of e-commerce, security measures in payments have also been improved. One of these measures is the virtual card implementation. Virtual cards are a type of card that does not have a physical presence that people can create in addition to their credit cards and set limits according to their preference. With this method, the actual card information of the credit card holder is not placed in the electronic environment. Another security measure is to send a confirmation code to cell phones via SMS after the purchase. These methods are used as measures to improve security in internet transactions.
4. Payment on Delivery in E-commerce
In addition to virtual payment methods, some platforms use payment on delivery in order to gain the trust of the consumer. In this method, the consumer who purchases the product pays the courier with cash or credit card when the product is delivered.